The process of extracting metals from
- Pyrometallurgy – furnace heat is used with a reducing agent (iron uses coke) and a flux to produce metal and slag waste.
- Hydrometallurgy – leaching dissolves ore in a solvent and then electrolysis is used to separate the metal.
Thermo-electrometallurgy. Aluminum can be extracted from salt or mineral mixtures by electrolysis. It uses a lot of electricity making it an expensive process.
Blister copper is refined by electrolysis.