2 October 2023

Condenser | Condenser Operation | Effect of Condenser Vacuum | Typical Steam Surface Condenser

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A.) Condenser Operation:-

Condenser is a large heat exchanger of the shell and tube type.

Cooling water enters through the waterbox, through the tubesheet and into the tubes.

The steam is cooled to a liquid by passing over the tubes where the cooling water is circulated.

Heat is transferred from the steam to the cooling water. For the steam to be condensed to water, the amount of heat removed must at least be equal to the latent heat of vaporization.

Latent heat will depend on the pressure in the condenser and the quality of exhaust steam with dryness fraction of .88 to.90.

A vacuum is produced in the condenser by the condensation process and the specific volume change from steam to a liquid.

The tube pattern and shell volume is designed to minimize the steam side pressure drop.


B.) Effect of Condenser Vacuum:-



C.) Typical Steam Surface Condenser


D.) Condenser Tube arrangement

  • Condensers handle large quantities of steam at low pressure, the volumetric flow is high.
  • The condenser tube arrangement must be opened, in order to allow steam flow into the inner region of the tube bundle

E.) Removal of Non-Condensable Gas

F.) Rankine Cycle




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