Alignment, Industrial Machine Alignment, Equipment Alignment (Part -1)
Alignment Procedure, Laser Alignment , Concept of Misalignment , Condition Monitoring, alignment methods, alignment Tolerance, Reverse indicator Method, Soft Foot, Fixing of Dial Gauge.
What is Alignment?
It is the correction of relative position of two
machines so that Center lines of two rotating shafts
form a straight line when the machines are working
at normal operating temperature.
Causes Of Misalignment
- Thermal expansion – Most machines align cold.
- Machine vibrations.
- Forces transmitted to the machine by pipe or support structure.
- Soft foot.
- Direct coupled machines are not properly aligned.
- Poor workmanship.
Effects Of Misalignment
More than 50% problems are due to misalignment.
Causes vibration on the machine
Vibration destroys critical parts of machines like bearings, gears, seals, coupling etc.
Breaks lubricant film inside the bearing and increase friction.
Increases load on the bearing.
Increase 2 – 17% power consumption.
Generates heat inside the coupling.
Types Of Misalignment
1. Off set
3. Skew – Combination of offset & angular
consumption of the Machine
Effects pin bush
Coupling more than tyre coupling.
Recognition Of Misalignment
1. Excessive Radial & Axial vibration
2. Premature / repetitive failure of bearing, seal, coupling.
3. Loose coupling elements.
4. Leakage from the seal.
5. Loose base bolts.
6. Coupling become hot while running.
7. High casing temperature.
Diagnosis Of Misalignment
1. Vibration Spectrum Analysis
2. Vibration Phase Analysis
3. Wear Particle Analysis